Hallux valgus ("bump on the big toe", "the bone foot") is a deformity of the foot, which is the curvature of the thumb outwards. This deformation is widespread, found in 25 % of the adult population. The curvature can be found in children, in this case it was congenital. Hallux valgus is usually diagnosed in women. With the fair sex, the curvature of the bone occurs ten times more often than men. This is because women bond over the weaker, the situation is worsened by wearing uncomfortable tight shoes. Pathology is the diagnosis in all age groups.
When the curvature of the thumb is very much greater than between the first and second metatarsal bones. As a result, the first bone moves inside, and your finger, which is held by muscles, which move outwards. The head forms a tubercle (it is often called "bones" or "bump"), as a result of constant interactions with the shoes head is inflamed and red, increase the sensitivity. This may cause bursitis – inflammation of the lining of the bag replacement.
There are several reasons due to which deforms the big toe.
Other factors, such as walking in uncomfortable shoes (narrow, short or tight), wearing high heels – they are secondary. They only contribute to the development of the deformity, if there is a predisposition.
The main symptoms of thumb deformity:
Sometimes, x-ray of the metatarsophalangeal joint, it is possible to detect a subluxation of the first toe. Occasionally, Hallux valgus in combination with other deformities (flat feet and hammer toes).
Diagnosis of the disease is the doctor. Initially, the doctor listens to patient complaints, request clarification of issues relating to the load on the foot, heredity, strain. Then the doctor performs a examination brake and awarded the x-ray study of the 1 metatarsophalangeal joint of the thumb. For a more detailed study can be assigned to the radiograph 2 and 3 foot aggregate.
The diagnosis put on the basis of symptoms and x-ray data. After the diagnosis the doctor prescribe the treatment. In some cases, the doctor may prescribe the passage of magnetic resonance imaging of the foot.
The degree of Hallux valgus is expressed in two quantities: the angle between the 1. and 2. metatarsal bone and as the deviation of the big toe 1 metatarsal bone. According to these parameters, there are three stages of the disease Hallux valgus.
The deformation of the thumb cannot be removed without a surgical operation. But with a small curvature it is possible to live a full life . If the patient is only the initial stage of the disease, doctors prescribe conservative treatment. It is also prescribed for older patients and older people, regardless of the degree of deformation.
Conservative treatment includes:
In addition to these procedures, the medications used. Medications designed to relieve pain. As a rule, prescribe medications from the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve pain and inflammation. Severe pain it is advisable to lubricate the place of the deformation of the anti-inflammatory ointments. Doctors may prescribe for patients receiving the physiotherapeutic procedures: magnetic therapy, phonophoresis, paraffin treatment, inductothermy.
In cases where multiple courses of conservative treatment, has proved to be ineffective, the doctor prescribes surgery.
All the surgical operations, which are divided into three groups:
Operations on soft tissues, it is considered that it is effective only on the first level of the deformation. During the operation of the silver doctor cuts the tendon of the adductor muscles of the thumb. During the surgery McBride the kite move. These measures can be carried out in connection with the operation, which removes bone growth and subcutaneous bag of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
If the patient has second or third degree Hallux valgus, in this case, the conduct of operations on the bones, or surgery on bones and tissues. Perhaps the use of the Chevron osteotomy. In this case, the doctor removes a small, v-shaped piece of the distal part of the first metatarsal bone.
When Scraft performed osteotomy cut (Z-cut) for all of the metatarsal bones of the thumb. Then move the particles, the particles are fixed with screws.
Surgical operations carried out in the trauma and orthopedic departments. Postoperative period lasts about 6 weeks. In the meantime, the patient can load the leg in a special knee brace. The patient should avoid overloads, often to the leg above the level of the body.
After removal of the orthosis, the patient is recommended to wear comfortable walking shoes (wide and without heel), complete a course of special gymnastic exercises, self-massage your foot with a tennis ball.
The deformation of the thumb should consult with your doctor. Determined by the extent of the disease, prescribe the appropriate treatment. You will help the orthopedist, traumatologist or surgeon. You can also consult with your doctor and endocrinologist.
Qualified medical assistance, which will help to cure the defect, eliminate the cause and restore the foot.