The foot is a pillar of the body. Due to its structure is able to withstand considerable loads. But the feature structure of the foot, that changes in its Section includes the transformation of the other facilities. Foot deformities lead to a change in behavior, fatigue of the legs and limited motion of the spine, to the disability.

The deformity can be congenital and acquired. If you want to change the shape of the foot contributes to a number of factors: the hereditary features of the structure of the foot disease and the way of life. There are several types of deformities of the foot:

  1. Clubfoot;
  2. Flat feet;
  3. Hollow leg;
  4. Valgus deformity of the first toe (also called hallux valgus);
  5. varus deformity of the fifth toe of the foot (synonym — strain Taylor);
  6. malleo deformation of the fingers.


Clubfoot is often a congenital disorder, in a thousand births is found one case of this strain. Clubfoot can be unilateral, although more common is still the mode of deformation.

Acquired clubfoot occurs on the background of injuries of the foot, paralysis of lower limbs, deep burns in this area. Clubfoot is clinically manifested by the following features:

  • Brings the distal part of the foot;
  • equinus — flexion of the foot;
  • Supination — rotation of the foot inwards.

Depending on the severity of these symptoms vary light, medium and heavy deformation.

Walking in people with such diseases, which are characterized by: they move in small steps, moving on one leg over the other in a few designated and laterally rotated hips. After walking the entire burden falls on the outer side of the foot.

Due to the passage of the centre of gravity of these patients increases the lateral lordosis, and knee joints greatly flatten and deform.

FLAT feet

In the foot to distinguish between the transverse and longitudinal arches. Are the role of a shock absorber, saving the spine and internal organs from shocks while traveling. The bows are held in position the bones, ligaments and muscles. Flatfoot is characterized by the lowering of the arches. The reasons for the development are the reduction in elasticity of the muscle of the foot.

Flat foot can be congenital or acquired. Acquired flat foot develops due to chronic overload stop, after rickets, injury, paralysis of the lower extremities and are much more common than congenital. It should be noted that many children who show signs of flat feet at an early age. This characteristic stems from the fact that the longitudinal arch is formed by seven years of age. With age, the severity of flat feet decreases. So, for nine years still as strain, only 5-7 % of children.

Flat feet, sometimes transverse and longitudinal. The cross is marked by an increase in the distance between the heads of the metatarsal bones. So the load is distributed incorrectly, and focuses on the front part of the foot. In the flexors of the fingers are in the high voltage, causing the fingers to become malleo. Another symptom of transverse flatfoot is the development of valgus deviation of the first toe (hallux valgus). In the case of the longitudinal flat feet is flattened longitudinal arch, causing the foot contact with the ground part, and almost the entire area of the sole.

There are three levels of flat feet, which is determined by the height and slope of the arch. In the initial phase, patients can only mention fatigue of the legs and pain in the legs while running stage flat feet, accompanied by pain, posture and walking.

hollow stupa


Hollow foot is a deformity in which the elevation of the longitudinal arch increases. We can say that the hollow foot is the opposite of flat feet when the arch of the opposite flattened. The development of such deformations lead to diseases of the neuromuscular apparatus (cerebral palsy, neuropathy, etc.), fractures in the talus or metatarsal bones, burns of the foot. Signs hollow of the leg are:

  • Heel supination (turning inward);
  • Pronation of the feet;
  • A high raised bow.

When severe deformation of the foot rests only on the heel backs and heads of the metatarsal bones, while the middle part of the foot is not in contact with the ground.

Stop radiisque rotarum propagationem on the area of the metatarsus heads, which in these areas of skin often have corns. Over time, the fingers are deformed and acquire the malleo or the same shape in the form of claws. People with hollow stop complain stop fatigue, irritability.


Valgus deformity of the first toe (Latin hallux valgus) is a disease very common in humans, which is called the "bump stop". This deformity can be congenital or acquired. But often the disease develops in adulthood. Valgus deformity of the first toe often occurs in conjunction with transverse flatfoot.

Hallux valgus occurs when the curvature of the first toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint, when the phalanges are arranged to each other at an angle. Protrusion of the phalanx on the page visually, it looks like that the "punch".

Hallux valgus with second toe, as if appears at the top of the first, and with much of the deformation appears on the second, third. As the deviation of the first toe stretch the ligaments and capsule of the metatarsophalangeal joint, which contributes to subluxations. In addition, the articular capsule, inflammation — bursitis. This situation is accompanied by redness and swelling in the region of the metatarsophalangeal joint. People with hallux valgus have been experiencing pain in the area of the first finger.


The deformation of the Taylor, also known as the "stop custom", as it is this deformation occurred to the profession, by crossing the legs and cum recubuisset ille on the side surface of the foot during the operation.

The disease is characterized by the curvature of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe, at the base of the little finger formed the education of the "bump". A person with a similar problem related to swelling of the little finger, its redness, the pain and fatigue of the legs. Very often the varus deviation of the fifth finger accompanied by a hallux valgus.


Malleo fingers, which often occur in combination with other deformations of the foot: transverse flatfoot or hallux valgus. Can be formed malleo fingers and cause cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis.

Such a deformity of the toes occurs as a result of intensive tension of the muscles-extensors of the finger and the distension of the muscles-flexors. On the basis of these changes is very settle the proximal phalanges and the biggest bend of the middle and distal phalanges. In the metatarsophalangeal joint subluxations occur, and further develops deforming osteoarthritis. Soon, the pain in the fingers and feet, from-for what people actually go to the doctor.



Treatment in the initial stages may be limited to the use of conservative methods. For such methods of treatment are:

  • Therapeutic exercises;
  • Massage;
  • Physiotherapy (paraffin baths, electromyostimulation, mud);
  • Warm baths to the feet;
  • The use of orthopaedic insoles, insoles, shoes.

Redressatsiya is a forced removal of the manually deformed foot in its anatomical position. Then the leg fixed by bandages. But this is not always possible to eliminate all strain components using this method.

Important! The treatment of deformities of the foot in infants need to take as soon as possible, because at a young age the tissue is very plastic and it can be reconstructed at the correct position on the foot. Therefore, the older the child is, the harder is the treatment.

In cases of severe deformation, when the disease impairs quality of life — surgical treatment. There are the following types of transactions:

  1. Operations of the soft tissues of the foot;
  2. Operations on the bones;
  3. The combined operations.


In order to prevent the development of deformities of the foot can help with some of the recommendations. Prophylaxis should be performed from the first years of a child's life and must include:

  • Strengthening the muscles that hold the bow with the help of exercise;
  • The creation of correct walking;
  • Weight control;
  • Exaction suitable footwear;
  • Wearing orthopedic insoles.