Valgus deformity of the great toe: treatment, symptoms, causes

The most common pathology of the foot – hallux valgus, expressed a different protrusion of the bone on the outer side of the foot to the base of the first phalanx, the formation of sub phalanges, plantar callosities and the large deformation of the fingers.

hallux valgus

This pathology is due to the curvature and deformity of the metatarsal joint expandentes, causing extension of the leg causes the large amplitude of the displacement of ligaments and tendons.

The disease has ancient roots, the first mention to be found in the writings of the physician and the wizard Cubilia, of 1769.

A further description of specifying how a hallux valgus deviation of the big toe from the median plane, which are in 1871, the famous physician of his time – Hutter. And in 1911 G. A. Albrecht, Russia has described this disease, as Gout is the most common orthopedic pathology.

The clinical picture

In order to understand the nature of the disease, believe that there is a problem in a short, accessible to every reader form. The structure of the foot of the person, which includes a number of metatarsal bones, phalanges of the digitus, ligaments and tendons connecting them.

With a healthy leg, the typical location of the metatarsal bones is totally parallel one to another location. Due to various negative factors, there is a deformity of the first metatarsal bone and the deviation in the direction of the (outward), forming the oblongum small dumpling.

The duration of the process that causes the progression of the disease, in which the foot "breaks". Disorders of the ligaments and tendons, with loss of elasticity leads to more extensive pathology of the first metatarsal bone. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the progression of the hallux valgus, a disease that has several stages.

  1. 1) an Early stage of the disease — is determined by the deviation of an inch to the side at a distance which does not exceed fifteen degrees. The lump is small in size.
  2. 2) the Middle stage of the disease — is determined by the deviation of the fingers up to twenty degrees. The next finger is the second, which is raised above the thumb as a hammer shape.
  3. 3) In the advanced stages of the disease — deformity is noted, triginta gradus deviation. Deformed fingers at the bottom of the first phalanx sticks great shot, and in places the greatest stress is produced by the rough calluses.

If you do not take any measures and let the disease the chance, the wrong loads on the foot may cause pathological processes in the spine, knee and hip joints.

Causes of hallux valgus

dermacia thumb

The risk group includes mainly women of middle age and the disease in women is almost ten times more often than men.

Risk factors are:

  • rickets – childhood;
  • age factor;
  • long-term professional employment, ballet, and dance;
  • diseases that cause inflammation in the joints.

The first cause of hallux valgus was first described in 1852 Dr. Brock suggested, and linked the emergence of this disease, by wearing inappropriate shoes. Later with his assumption agreed as the systematic wearing of shoes with high (>5 cm) heel, narrow toe shoes, mismatched shoes may well be one of the factors for the emergence of hallux valgus.

Due to the anatomical features, the main reason for hallux valgus is the result of natural causes, associated with the lack of structure of the human foot. In most cases, it is congenital or acquired transverse flatfoot.

But it is also a genetic factor so disadvantage is not an unambiguous assertion of congenital anomalies, such as nor small children, nor the children in puberty, valgus deformity of the great toe is never found. This shows that also hereditary factors, which should contribute to any cause, and may include:

  • longitudinal or transverse platypodia;
  • due to congenital anomalies;
  • weak ties, which are caused by pregnancy or menopause;
  • when the large mass of the body;
  • osteoporosis, when there is a lot of bone loss;
  • with the rapid growth stops at puberty;
  • as a result of the traumatic deformation;
  • diseases of the endocrine nature.
  • professional activities related to the long tension of the leg.

Symptoms of hallux valgus


So in the initial phase to determine hallux valgus deformation of the thumb, you need to know at the beginning of the symptoms of the disease. Typical signs of deformation, depends on its phase.

In the early stages of the disease are noted:

  • pain pain and its aggravating when walking, proximal phalanges;
  • redness and bruising of the skin, protruding bones.

In the middle stage:

  • it should be noted the development of inflammation;
  • the distinctive manifestation of the pain and swelling, formation of tumors in the head of a metatarsal bone;
  • in accordance with the third, middle part of the seems, bunion.

In the advanced stage of hallux valgus:

  • it has a sharp pain in the big toe and on the soles of the feet;
  • on protruding the tongue-the build-up is easily visible;
  • the skin under the lower second and third phalanges covered with dead skin cells or calluses.

The diagnosis of hallux valgus

The first step in the diagnosis of hallux valgus is a visual inspection will determine the stage of the disease.

  1. 1), With the aim to identify detailed changes in the bone tissue, which is assigned to the x-ray.
  2. 2) de plantography Method determines the stage can be flat feet and explores the level of load on the foot.
  3. 3) Computer analysis – podometry, determines the pressure on the foot.

The results of this extended diagnosis, which are the basis for determining treatment.

Treatment of valgus deformation of inches without surgery


Treatment of valgus. without surgery quite a time consuming process that requires patience and persistence. Depends on the degree of the deformation of the thumb joint.

In the early and moderate hallux valgus treatment begins with recommendations for the correct selection of the footwear – free and comfortable with a wide toe box to reduce pressure and to remove the inconvenience, to avoid further deformation.

Selection of orthotic devices, distributing strain and reduce load and friction on the feet. This can be:

  • the foot support;
  • interdigital roller;
  • orthopedic factors;
  • corrective insoles.

The use of such devices, which contributes to a reduction in walking, pain, inhibition of the pathological process.

Drug therapy includes the use of corticosteroids and combined use of anti-inflammatory drugs with physiotherapy. If valgus. the result of all systemic diseases, first remove the background, the causes of the disease that caused pathology.

The advanced stage of the disease shall be treated prompt surgical intervention. This can be:

  • remove the growth surgically;
  • reconstruction of deformed bones;
  • surgery trim periarticular muscles;
  • the distal and proximal osteotomy – changing the angle between the bones;
  • arthrodesis is surgery for the determination of the joint;
  • transplantation of tendons;
  • operation on implantation of artificial joints
  • or approximately 93 individually selected methods.

Disease prevention


Want to avoid hallux valgus deformation of the thumb? Then learn, because the basic rules of prevention are:

  1. 1) early detection and treatment of any type of flatfoot.
  2. 2) the Correct selection of shoes, no high heels and narrow socks made from natural materials.
  3. 3) the Use of orthopedic insoles and arch supports.
  4. 4) When used for a long time on the legs, resting the legs and not relaxing warm baths.

Be careful on your health, which will help to avoid many health problems.

The doctor, who should I contact for treatment?

If, after reading the article, we can assume that they are characteristic for this disease symptoms, you should seek the advice of a podiatrist.