hallux valgus deformation of foot in children - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

hallux valgus deformation of foot in children – defects of the foot characterized by a reduction in the amount of his bows and X-shaped curvature of the axis. When hallux valgus in children marked a turning point of the toe and the heel outwards, and the omission of the middle part of the foot, clumsiness of gait, fatigue and pain in the legs. The diagnosis of hallux valgus of the children is a children's orthopedist on the basis of visual inspection, radiography stop in 3 projections, de plantography, submetry. The treatment of hallux valgus in children is performed using physical therapy, massage, wearing orthopedic shoes, orthopedic mixture of a tyre; the invalidity of the performed operation.

hallux valgus in children

Under valgus deformity refers to a deformity of the foot in children, in which, when the stricta compression and straightening of the knee, the distance between the inner edges of the ankles is more than 4-5 cm in the toes and the heel at the outer side and inner arches "collapse" inward. This curvature of the legs, is called X-form, unlike varus (O-shaped) deformation feet. If the hallux valgus deformity accompanied by a decrease in the amount of the arches of the foot, we are talking about flat-valgus deformation of foot in children. This form of disease is most often found in children's traumatology and orthopedics.

Causes of hallux valgus in children

hallux valgus deformity of the foot, the child may be congenital or acquired. In the first case the decisive factor is intrauterine disorders of the shape and arrangement of the bones of the foot, and talipes are diagnosed in the first months of a child's life. It is true, that is the most severe congenital deformity of the foot is "stop the rock" or "vertical battering ram."

Acquired hallux valgus deformation of foot in children is associated with the incompleteness of the tendinous-ligamentous apparatus and developmental disorders of the musculoskeletal system of the child. Such deviations are usually detected by 10-12 months, when a child tries to do the first steps. hallux valgus deformity of the foot often occurs in immunocompromised children with hypotonia. The reasons for the last can lie in the prematurities of the child, the fetus, malnutrition, congenital weakness of the connective tissue, a frequent disease in young children respiratory catarrh, bronchitis ,pneumonias. A special role in the weakening of the ties of the muscle and skeletal apparatus of the foot belongs to rickets. The violation of the static-dynamic relationship in the lower extremities secondary develops in children on the background of neuromuscular diseases: polyneuropathy, cerebral palsy, myodystrophies,polio. hallux valgus deformation of foot in children can be due to obesity and excessive stress on the feet due to excess body weight.

Sometimes a hallux valgus deformation of foot in children develops after injuries of ligaments, muscles, bones, legs and feet and long stay limbs in plaster. In more rare cases, hallux valgus deformity occurs in children with dysplasia and congenital hip peccetur. Causes of hallux valgus in children can be an early preparation of the child to his feet, bad shoes (too soft and bad lock foot).

Weakness in the muscle tone under the weight of the child, the arch of the foot is flattened, tibial muscles, muscles and ligaments of the toes stretched and weakened and can not hold the feet in the optimal position. When hallux valgus in children is offset from the ankle joint inwards, and the heel and the toes outwards.

Symptoms of hallux valgus in children

In most cases, the first signs of hallux valgus in children, parents will find closer to 1 year, soon after the child's first steps. While paying attention to that when walking the child does not occur on the whole foot, and on its inner edge.

Over time the foot becomes X-shaped, the walking is clumsy, insecure, the children quickly get tired, when playing with peers, complain of pain in the lower extremities and the spine. For the evening the foot of the child, swelling, cramps in calf muscles. When is the review of the shoes the child is significantly uneven gerunt - shoes noster on the inner side of the sole.

hallux valgus deformation of foot in children can lead to development of a platypodia, limb shortening,scoliosis, degenerative disc disease, deformities of the pelvis, knee and ankle joints of the feet, osteoarthritis.

The diagnosis of hallux valgus in children

hallux valgus deformity of the foot, the child can see a pediatrician, but finally, to judge the presence of pathology and its severity provides only an overview of the children's traumatologist-orthopedist and a special examination. During the child's examination points to the deformation of the toe and the heel outwards, smoothing the arches and the offset of the inner part of the foot – inside.

For the final solution of the diagnosis of hallux valgus in children is radiography of the leg, the computer plantography and podometry. On radiographs of the feet, which is carried out in 3 projections, it is possible to observe changes in the position of the stop relative to each other. Computer plantography allows you to calculate different morphological parameters of the foot. The use of the submetry estimated load distribution on the different parts of the foot. Computer podometry allows the detection of changes in clinical signs of hallux valgus in children have not yet emerged. In some cases, to clarify the diagnosis may require ultrasound of the joints.

If you want to exclude diseases of the Central and peripheral nervous system, children with valgus deformity of the foot must be examined by a child neurologist.

The treatment of hallux valgus in children

hallux valgus in children treatment

The goal of treatment hallux valgus in children is the restoration of normal form and function, the strengthening of the muscular and ligamentous apparatus.

In congenital hallux valgus in children may require immobilization of the limb using plaster bandages. Selection and modelling bandage is a children orthopedist depending on the type of deformation and the degree of deviation from the norm.

In the next step (and in the case of acquired hallux valgus in children since the beginning) recommended foot bath, massage courses ( lumborum-sacralis region, joints, legs, feet), paraffin, ozokerite and mud applications,electrophoresis, diadynamics, magnetotherapy, electrostimulation of the muscles of the leg and foot, IRT. Useful classes of therapeutic swimming and exercise therapy.

Children with valgus deformity of the foot require the selection of individual functional inserts or special orthopedic shoes with a rigid lateral fixation of the foot and heel arch support.

For the surgical treatment of hallux valgus in children is decided that a relatively rare (approximately 7% of the cases). The method of correcting the hallux valgus feet in children is determined by individual characteristics and severity of the disease. Most common in children's traumatology, orthopedics received a method of transplantation of the tendon of the long peroneal muscle at the inner edge of the foot with Achilles tendon extension; arthrodesis talus de-have in common, the imposition of external fixation device, etc ..

Prediction and prevention of hallux valgus in children

hallux valgus deformation of foot in children who can reach severe degrees, however, not only a pronounced cosmetic defect, but also causes a functional deterioration of the limb, until the disability in the young working ages. In the case of low degree of deformation and timely treatment possible full recovery the function of the foot.

To avoid the development of hallux valgus in children should be avoided pressure on the lower extremities of the child up to 7-8 months. You need to take a rational manner, which includes hardening, gymnastics, preventive massage, good nutrition, sufficient sleep, and walks. The importance of the prevention of rickets, vitamin D and trace elements.

It is obligatory to regularly visit the pediatrician and preventive checks carried out by experts in different fields (including pediatric surgeon and prosthodontist). You should pay attention to the correct selection of shoes for the child: this must be the same size (not small and not large); made of quality natural materials; solid arch support, a rigid rear and from the side.